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This post follows on from this post where the logic for the below is discussed. I am not going to define here what easy means!

Here is the strategy/guiding principle:

Fundamental Principle of Solving ‘Easy’ Equations

Identify what is difficult or troublesome about the equation and get rid of it. As long as you do the same thing to both numbers (the “Lhs” and the “Rhs”), the equation will be replaced by a simpler equation with thesamesolution.

There is a right way to think about equations and there is a wrong way to think about equations. Let us not speak of the wrong way…

The equations I have in mind are those equations written in the form

,

where the aim is to find all the real numbers that ‘satisfy’ the equation.

We aren’t always taught the logic behind solving equations. The first thing to say is that many of us are trained to believe that this ‘‘ means the ‘the answer is’. This is not what equals means. This may have happened to us because while young children our textbooks had stuff like

written in them… the ‘answer’ of course being eight and the = sign almost suggests that we have to ‘do something’ to . Of course, this is not what equals means, and while the pupil who writes

*is *correct, the pupil who writes e.g.

,

has written a statement just as true as .

# Introduction

In Ireland at least, we first encounter fractions at age 6-8. At this age, because of our maturity, while we might be capable of some conceptional understanding, by and large we are doing things by rote and, for example, multiplying fractions is just something that we do without ever questioning *why* fractions multiply together like that. This piece is aimed at second and third level students who want to understand why the ‘calculus’ of fractions is like it is.

Mathematicians can in a rigorous way, write down what a fraction is… this piece is pitched somewhere in between these constructions — perhaps seen in an undergraduate mathematics degree — and the presentation of fractions presented in primary school. It is closer in spirit to a rigorous approach but makes no claims at *absolute *rigour (indeed it will make no attempt at rigour in places). The facts are real number axioms.

# Defining Fractions

We will define fractions in terms of *integers *and *multiplication*.

To get the integers we first define the *natural numbers*.

### Definition 1: Natural Numbers

The set of

natural numbersis the set of counting numbers,

together with the operations of

addition(+) andmultiplication.

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